Cause of Mesothelioma;-Non-Asbestos-Related Mesothelioma:
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer, but very aggressive. Mesothelioma affect the membrane lining of certain body organ like the lungs and abdomen. It was well established for the past several decays that asbestos is the primary risk and the only factor that cause of Mesothelioma. With the new cases of mesothelioma patients, intense researches explained that 90% cases that the major cause of Mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. Other risk factors were presented under intense research. For several decades although quite uncommon but still exist, giving a risk to mesothelioma patients and are highlighted here.
But fortunately the cause of Mesothelioma is still unproven and insignificant.
Genetic Risk Factors- Genetic Cell Mutation;
The genetic risk factors that cause of Mesothelioma can be associated to genetic mutations.
Changes can be caused by environmental factors. The healthy cells turn into cancerous ones making a mistake in DNA, which multiply randomly and at a rapid pace.
Most cells in the body die and generates to new ones. These cancer cells don’t die as the normal cells generally do. They go on multiplying randomly to accumulate forming a tumor. The tumor invade and spread further within the body and leads to mesothelioma.
One of the main key for mesothelioma treatment; knowing what causes genetic mutation leading to this rare disease mesothelioma. Not everyone exposed to asbestos develops mesothelioma. Specialists have found some potential genetic connections cause of Mesothelioma. So that some people may be at a higher risk of developing mesothelioma.
Still not much is known to researchers discovering genetic mutation that cause of Mesothelioma. Searching for a gene link is in progress. In the future they may be able to identify the genetic risk factors for developing this type of asbestos-related cancer that could help with diagnosis and treatment.
Still an interaction between several risk factors; the environment and the possibility of a hereditary factor such as the SV40 virus or the BAP1 gene mutation. The overall health conditions and smoking with other life style choices seems to be the reason but is still being explored…
Other Cause of Mesothelioma;
Are Some People Genetically Inclined to Mesothelioma? Mutation initiated by exposure to asbestos;
While exposure levels and the duration of exposure play significant roles have been reported in developing asbestos- related diseases, but cases have been reported. People with only a one-time exposure to asbestos faces mesothelioma and others do not. Meaning that; there are some people are just more susceptible to asbestos than others. Researchers believe that there are genetic factors that make a person more prone to developing mesothelioma cancer. Generally it is believed that chances of genetic mutation due to asbestos are high. These tiny asbestos fibers when inhaled and trapped in the lining of certain organs; lung mesothelium or the mesothelium of other organs cause an initiation of mutations in genes of the exposed person.
BAP1 Genetic Mutation;
In 2011, researchers unveiled a genetic link that may play a significant role between mesothelioma and a gene known as BAP1. The gene in question normally plays a role as a Tumor suppressor and as a Metastasis suppressor.
Any germ line mutations in BAP1 Genetic Mutation may be associated with increased risk of cancers including malignant mesothelioma. It was discovered those people who carry a mutation in a gene called BAP1 are more likely to develop mesothelioma. This discovery will help identifying and earlier diagnoses. Thus new treatments for people who may be at great risk for developing mesothelioma, especially those exposed to dangerous levels of asbestos. It also may help in providing a patient with precaution steps to minimize the risk of developing mesothelioma, creating a schedule for routine exams and more.
Simian Virus 40;
Background on Simian Virus 40;-
Simian virus 40 is a polyomavirus (a family of viruses) that is found in both monkeys and humans. Simian virus 40 was initially discovered in the 1950s and 60s in rhesus monkey kidney cells. Polio vaccines were made from these cells and the mass immunization program for polio had already begun that time. From 1955 to 1963 around 90% of children and 60% of adults in USA were inadvertently administered to SV40-contaminated polio vaccinations. These were developed from the monkey’s cells that carried the simian virus 40. The exposure was so significant that researchers believe that between 10-30%of early polio vaccines in the 1950s in U.S. were contaminated with SV40.
It should be noted as mentioned above that the virus has also been found in humans who haven’t been exposed to these vaccines.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) has raised concern. SV40 is thought of as a possible cofactor to induce mesothelioma. But this is not completely clear. In some people who have been exposed to asbestos, some researchers believe that contact with the SV40 virus may have altered tumor suppressing genes making them more likely to develop mesothelioma. The relationship is contested in the medical community between this virus and mesothelioma. It is still unclear and unproven to cause mesothelioma. No link was established in this regard, however further research is being conducted on the subject to gain clarity on this potential link.
A gene mutation is a permanent natural process. A gene mutation changes a DNA sequence which makes up a gene, DNA sequence differs from what is found in most people. The whole human family is one species, with the same genes. Gene mutation creates slightly different versions of the same genes, and any small differences in DNA sequence make every individual unique. Abnormal mutations for a single DNA sequence causes cancer and many illnesses. Any alter DNA caused by foreign invaders, such as viruses or carcinogens like asbestos can cause abnormal mutations. Researches are hoping for earlier diagnosis of mesothelioma patients. Those mesothelioma patients with known asbestos exposure may be able to be screened to determine if their genes have the ability to abnormal mutation. Determining and putting them at risk of developing mesothelioma and those people who may be more likely to develop mesothelioma. Genetic testing has even led to the development of methods that contribute to more accurate prognoses.
It is also documented that very small number of cases of Pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma patients has been associated with exposure to x-rays. It was thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) that was used. Until the 1950’s thorium dioxide was used in x-ray imaging which these patients had underwent during their treatment for a previous cancer increased their risk of mesothelioma.
A natural material occurring mineral that may cause of Mesothelioma is closely resembles the chemical structure of asbestos. This natural material is called erionite (a type of Zeolite fibre). It is a toxic substance that is widespread but unknown to many has been shown to cause mesothelioma. So much similarity to asbestos, the mineral doesn’t become toxic until the fibers are disturbed.